Located in Golden Colorado, the Hazen Pilot Plant has been the testing foundation for the Studsvik Processing Facility, the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit, the SRS Tank 48H Treatment Unit and the Hanford LAW and Secondary Waste Stream Demonstrations. Testing performed at these facilities provided vital and critical data necessary for the design and permitting of the facilities. Below is a description of the Process Flow Diagram for the facility.
In the THOR® process, waste surrogate feed, superheated steam, and co-reactants are introduced into a dual fluidized bed steam reformer system where liquids are evaporated; organics are destroyed; and reactive chemicals, radionuclides surrogates; and non-volatile heavy metals are converted into a mineralized solid waste product. The first bed, the Denitration and Moneralization Reformer (DMR), provides a strongly reducing environment, large surface area, and adequate residence time for the waste surrogate to fully, and efficiently convert to mineral form. Reductants, typically carbon and iron-based, are used to convert nitrates and nitrites directly to nitrogen gas. Clay is added to the waste feed to convert the alkali metals, sulfate, chloride, fluoride, phosphates, and non-volatile heavy metals and other inorganic waste constituents into a solid mineral product. Different co-reactants are used to produces different mineral products. The DMR operates safely at near ambient pressure and moderate temperatures of 600 to 850 degrees Celsius.
The second fluidized bed reformer, called the Carbon Reduction Reformer (CRR), accepts the process gases and entrained fines from the DMR. The CRR operate in an oxidizing mode at 850 to 1000 degrees Celsius and converts carbon fines and residual organic gases from the DMR to carbon dioxide and water vapor. The dual reformer process destroys all organics in the waste feed, including RCRA and TSCA constituents. The offgas from the CRR, mostly nitrogen, water vapor, oxygen and carbon dioxide, is cooled, filtered, and monitored prior to being released to the atmosphere at as a MACT compliant emission stream.